```# # print("Please enter your name:")

# print(f"Hello, {name}")

# # USD to INR conversion
# usd = input("Please enter the dollar amount: ")  # "20"
# # inr = float(usd) * 72.98
# # print(type(usd))
# float_usd = float(usd)
# # print(type(float_usd))

# # print(f"\${usd} in INR is {inr}")
# # print(f"\${usd} in INR is {float(usd) * 72.98}")

# print(f"\${usd} in INR is {int(usd) * int(70.123213)}")

usd = input("Please enter the dollar amount: ")
rate = input("Please enter the exchange rate: ")
# accept another input,(conversion rate)
# float_usd = float(usd)
# print(f"\${usd} in INR is {float(usd) * int(70.123213)}")
print(f"\${usd} in INR is {float(usd) * float(rate)}")

# int(45.324)```
```# name = input("Which city do you stay in? ")

# if name == "mumbai":
#     print("Hello Mumbai")

# if name == "mojoland":
#     print("It's not a good city")

# if name == "chennai":
#     print("It's a good city")

# if name == "mumbai":
#     print("Hello Mumbai")
# elif name == "mojoland":
#     print("It's not a good city")
# elif name == "chennai":
#     print("It's a good city")
# else:
#     print("I have no idea about that city!")

# if name == "mumbai":
#     print("Hello Mumbai")
# else:
#     print("Cool")
# if name == "mojoland":
#     print("It's not a good city")
# if name == "chennai":
#     print("It's a good city")

# if name == "mojoland":
#     print("It's not a good city")

# if name == "chennai":
#     print("It's a good city")

# if name == "chennai":
#     print("It's a good city")

# if name == "chennai":
#     print("It's a good city")

# name = input("Which city do you stay in? ")

# if name != "mojoland":
#     print("You are welcome")
# else:
#     print("You are not welcome")

# if (age >= 21) or (not city != "mojoland"):
#     print("You are allowed to enter and buy drinks in the the concert")
# elif age >= 18 and city == "mojoland":
#     print("You are allowed to enter but not drink and not talk to anyone")
# else:
#     print("Get out! You can't enter")

# else:

# else:

# if ((age >= 18 and age <= 21) or age == 16) and city == "karachi":
# else:
#     print("You have to follow the rules")

player1 = input("Please enter Player1's choice: ")
player2 = input("Please enter Player2's choice: ")

# if player1 == "rock" and player2 == "scissor":
#     print("Player 1 wins")
# elif player1 == "rock" and player2 == "paper":
#     print("Player 2 wins")
# elif player1 == "rock" and player2 == "rock":
#     print("It's a tie")
# elif player1 == "scissor" and player2 == "paper":
#     print("Player 1 wins")
# elif player1 == "paper" and player2 == "scissor":
#     print("Player 2 wins")
# elif player1 == "scissor" and player2 == "scissor":
#     print("It's a tie")
# elif player1 == "paper" and player2 == "paper":
#     print("It's a tie")
# elif player1 == "paper" and player2 == "rock":
#     print("Player 1 wins")
# elif player1 == "scissor" and player2 == "rock":
#     print("Player 2 wins")

if (player1 == 'rock' and player2 == 'scissor') or (player1 == 'scissor' and player2 == 'paper') or (player1 == 'paper' and player2 == 'rock'):
print("Player 1 wins")
elif  (player2 == 'rock' and player1 == 'scissor') or (player2 == 'scissor' and player1 == 'paper') or (player2 == 'paper' and player1 == 'rock'):
print("Player 2 wins")
else:
print("It's a tie")

if player1 == player2:
print("it's a tie")
elif player1 == 'rock':
if player2 == 'scissor':
print("Player 1 wins")
elif player2 == 'paper':
print("Player 2 wins")
elif player1 == 'paper':
if player2 == 'rock':
print("Player 1 wins")
elif player2 == 'scissor':
print("Player 2 wins")
elif player1 == 'scissor':
if player2 == 'paper':
print("Player 1 wins")
else:
print("Please only enter either rock, paper or scissor.")```
```# for char in "rstforum":
#     print(char)

# [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]

# collection = range(1, 11)
# collection = [1,2,324,4,454,6,7,234,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16]
# text = "This is so cool"

# for someValue in collection:
#     print(someValue)
#     print("----")
#     print("SOMETHING")

# for someValue in text:
#     print(someValue)

# for num in range(10):
#     print(num)

# times_to_remind_user = range(0, 4)

# for num in range(50, 100):
#     print(num)

# for num in range(0, 100, 10):
#     print(num)

# for num in range(100, 0, -10):
#     print(num)

# for num in range(10):
#     print(f"{num * 1000 / 3} times: WAKE UP!")

# for num in range(1, 21):
#     if num % 2 == 0:
#         print(f"{num}: Fizz is even")
#     elif num % 2 == 1:
#         print(f"{num}: Fizz is odd")
#     elif num == 5 and num == 16:
#         print(f"{num}: FizzBuzz")

# for num in range(1, 21):
#     if num == 5 or num == 16:
#         print(f"{num}: FizzBuzz")
#     elif num % 2 == 0:
#         print(f"{num}: Fizz is even")
#     else:
#         print(f"{num}: Fizz is odd")

# While Loops

# for num in range(1, 20):
#     print(num)

# # Infinite loop
# num = 1
# while num < 21:
#     print(num)
#     num += 1
#     # num = num + 1

# for num in range(3):
#     for num2 in range(10):
#         print(f"{num} {num2}")

# while True:
#   command = input("Type 'exit' to exit: ")
#   if (command == "exit"):
#     break

# for num in range(1, 21):
#   print(num)
#   if num == 5:
#     break

# RPS game

from random import randint

player_wins = 0
computer_wins = 0

winning_score = 3

while player_wins < winning_score and computer_wins < winning_score:
print(f"PLAYER SCORE {player_wins}")
print(f"COMPUTER SCORE {computer_wins}")

if player == "quit":
break

print("\nROCK...PAPER...SCISSOR\n")

rand_num = randint(0, 2)
if rand_num == 0:
computer = "rock"
elif rand_num == 1:
computer = "paper"
elif rand_num == 2:
computer = "scissor"

print(f"Computer played {computer}")

if (
(player == "rock" and computer == "scissor")
or (player == "scissor" and computer == "paper")
or (player == "paper" and computer == "rock")
):
player_wins += 1
print("Player wins")
elif (
(computer == "rock" and player == "scissor")
or (computer == "scissor" and player == "paper")
or (computer == "paper" and player == "rock")
):
computer_wins += 1
print("Computer wins")
else:
print("It's a tie")

if player_wins > computer_wins:
print("You got a beer")
else:
print("You should settle in Mojoland!")

# player1 = input("Please enter Player1's choice: ")
# player2 = input("Please enter Player2's choice: ")

# if player1 == player2:
#     print("it's a tie")
# elif player1 == 'rock':
#     if player2 == 'scissor':
#         print("Player 1 wins")
#     elif player2 == 'paper':
#         print("Player 2 wins")
# elif player1 == 'paper':
#     if player2 == 'rock':
#         print("Player 1 wins")
#     elif player2 == 'scissor':
#         print("Player 2 wins")
# elif player1 == 'scissor':
#     if player2 == 'paper':
#         print("Player 1 wins")
# else:
#     print("Please only enter either rock, paper or scissor.")

# Exercise:
# Make a guessing game.
# random value = generate a random number between 0 and 10
# Keep asking the user to input his guess
# if guess is less than the random value, your tell the user, that his guess is too low
# if guess is greater than the random value, tell the user, that his guess is too high
# if guess == random value. Break out
# (optional) -> implement a "Do you want to play again?"```
```# item1 = "iphone"
# item2 = "oneplus"
# item3 = "fridge"

# sourabh_cart = "iphone//oneplus//fridge"

# # using lists
# sourabh_cart = ["iphone", "oneplus", "fridge"]

# Shortcut for block commenting in VSCODE - Ctrl /

p_gmail = [
"Your subscription to ****hub has expired",
"Some other email",
"Naukri.com - you job application has been accepted"
]

# for email in p_gmail:
#     print(email)

# i = 0
# while i < len(p_gmail):
#     print(f"Value at {i} = {p_gmail[i]}")
#     i += 1

# my_fav_nums = [123,43,5,6,43,567]

# for num in my_fav_nums:
#     print(num * 2)

todo = []

while True:

break
print(todo)
print("--------------")
for item in todo:
print(f"* {item}")
print("--------------")
else:

for item in todo:
print(item)```
```# numbers = [12, 321, 3124, 352, 5, 43, 457]

# numbers_mod = []

# for num in numbers:
#     numbers_mod.append(num * 2)

# numbers_comp = [(num // 2) ** 2 for num in numbers]

# print(numbers)
# print(numbers_mod)
# print([num / 2 for num in numbers])
# print(numbers_comp)

# fav_things = ["Mojoland", "Video Games", "Pasta", "Tobacco", "Sweets", "Cigars"]
# banned_things = ["Mojoland", "Weed", "Tobacco", "Cigars"]

# # print([item for item in fav_things if item not in banned_things])

# # print([thing[::-1] for thing in fav_things])

# print([item if item not in banned_things else "****" for item in fav_things])

# nums = [[6, 6, 6], [1, 1, 1], [9, 9, 9]]

# # for num1 in nums:
# #     for num2 in num1:
# #         print(num2 ** 3)

# print([[num * 2 for num in items] for items in nums])

# print([num * 2 for num in nums])

# [
#     [1, 2, 3],
#     [1, 2, 3],
#     [1, 2, 3]
# ]

# [['x' if num % 2 != 0 else 'o' for num in range(1,4)] for val in range(1,4)]
# # [['x', 'o', 'x'], ['x', 'o', 'x'], ['x', 'o', 'x']]

products = [
[
"Acer Predator",
"It's a powerful laptop (desktop replacement)",
400000,
"SKUdaf352",
94,
20,
],
[
"Apple Macbook Pro 16",
"It's an expensive laptop (desktop replacement)",
4000000,
1000,
],
]

for product in products:
print(
f"Name - {product[0]}\nDescription - {product[1]}\nPrice - {product[2]}\nSKU - {product[3]}\nInventory - {product[4]}\n\n\n"
)
```
```# >>> profile = {"name": "Sonny", "profession": "actor", "age": 35, "gender": "female", "dob": "1/1/85"}
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> profile
# {'name': 'Sonny', 'profession': 'actor', 'age': 35, 'gender': 'female', 'dob': '1/1/85'}
# >>>
# >>> type(profile)
# <class 'dict'>
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> profile2 = dict(name="Patrick", profession="student", age=31, gender="male", dob="28/8/89")
# >>>
# >>> profile2
# {'name': 'Patrick', 'profession': 'student', 'age': 31, 'gender': 'male', 'dob': '28/8/89'}
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> type(profile2)
# <class 'dict'>
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> profile[0]
# Traceback (most recent call last):
#   File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
# KeyError: 0
# >>> profile["name"]
# 'Sonny'
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> dict(89="hello")
#   File "<stdin>", line 1
# SyntaxError: expression cannot contain assignment, perhaps you meant "=="?
# >>> dict(name="hello")
# {'name': 'hello'}
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> {89:"hello"}
# {89: 'hello'}
# >>>
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> product = {"name": "AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3990X", "cores": 64, "SKU": "asdsad87632"}
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> product
# >>>
# >>> product["name"]
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> nums = [1,2,3,4,5]
# >>>
# >>> for num in nums:
# ...     print(num)
# ...
# 1
# 2
# 3
# 4
# 5
# >>> for detail in product:
# ...     print(detail)
# ...
# name
# cores
# SKU
# >>>
# >>> for detail in product.values():
# ...     print(detail)
# ...
# 64
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> for detail in profile2.keys():
# ...     print(detail)
# ...
# name
# profession
# age
# gender
# dob
# >>>

# >>> for key,value in profile.items():
# ...     print(f"{key} - {value}")
# ...
# name - Sonny
# profession - actor
# age - 35
# gender - female
# dob - 1/1/85
# >>>
# >>> for key,value in profile2.items():
# ...     print(key)
# ...
# name
# profession
# age
# gender
# dob
# >>> for key,value in profile2.items():
# ...     print(f"The value of {key} is {value}")
# ...
# The value of name is Patrick
# The value of profession is student
# The value of age is 31
# The value of gender is male
# The value of dob is 28/8/89
# >>>
# >>> for item in profile2.items():
# ...     print(item)
# ...
# ('name', 'Patrick')
# ('profession', 'student')
# ('age', 31)
# ('gender', 'male')
# ('dob', '28/8/89')
# >>>

# >>> "name" in profile2
# True
# >>> "job" in profile2
# False
# >>>
# >>> "Patrick" in profile2
# False
# >>> "Patrick" in profile2.values()
# True
# >>>

# >>> profile2
# {'name': 'Patrick', 'profession': 'student', 'age': 31, 'gender': 'male', 'dob': '28/8/89'}
# >>>
# >>> profile
# {}
# >>> profile = profile2.copy()
# >>>
# >>> profile
# {'name': 'Patrick', 'profession': 'student', 'age': 31, 'gender': 'male', 'dob': '28/8/89'}
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> {}.fromkeys("a", "b", "c")
# Traceback (most recent call last):
#   File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
# TypeError: fromkeys expected at most 2 arguments, got 3
# >>> {}.fromkeys("name", "john")
# {'n': 'john', 'a': 'john', 'm': 'john', 'e': 'john'}
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> {}.fromkeys(["name", "age"], 23)
# {'name': 23, 'age': 23}
# >>> {}.fromkeys(["name", "age"], [1,2,3,4])
# {'name': [1, 2, 3, 4], 'age': [1, 2, 3, 4]}
# >>>
# >>>
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> {}.fromkeys(["name", "age", "dob"], None)
# {'name': None, 'age': None, 'dob': None}
# >>> {}.fromkeys(["name", "age", "dob"], 0)
# {'name': 0, 'age': 0, 'dob': 0}
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> score = {}.fromkeys(["tim", "john", "ram"], 0)
# >>> score
# {'tim': 0, 'john': 0, 'ram': 0}
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> score = {}.fromkeys([num for num in range(1,11)], None)
# >>>
# >>> score
# {1: None, 2: None, 3: None, 4: None, 5: None, 6: None, 7: None, 8: None, 9: None, 10: None}
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> myDict = {}.fromkeys("hello", "world")
# >>>
# >>> myDict
# {'h': 'world', 'e': 'world', 'l': 'world', 'o': 'world'}
# >>>
# >>> type(myDict)
# <class 'dict'>
# >>> myDict = {}.fromkeys(1, "world")
# Traceback (most recent call last):
#   File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
# TypeError: 'int' object is not iterable
# >>> myDict = {}.fromkeys(123, "world")
# Traceback (most recent call last):
#   File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
# TypeError: 'int' object is not iterable
# >>>
# >>>
# >>>

user1 = {
"first_name": "John",
"last_name": "Sinha",
"email": "[email protected]",
"phone": 100,
}

# else:
#     print("This user doesn't not have a twitter account")

# print(user1.pop("phone"))
# print(user1)

# print(user1.popitem())
# print(user1.popitem())
# print(user1.popitem())
# print(user1)

# # Prints only the keys
# for item in user1:
#     print(item)

# # Prints the values
# for item in user1.values():
#     print(item)

# # Prints both the key and the value together
# for key, value in user1.items():
#     print(f"The value of {key} is {value}")

# # Dict Comprehension
# {print(f"The value of {key} is {value}") for key, value in user1.items()}

# my_dict = {"India": "New Delhi", "China": "Bejing", "Nepal": "Katmandu", "Bangaladesh": "Dhaka"}

# places = {country:f"{city} is the capital" for country,city in my_dict.items()}
# print(places)

# print({num: num**5 for num in [2,3,4]})
# print({num: str(num) + "HELLO" for num in [2,3,4]})

# string = "ABCDEFG"

# new_value = {string[i - 1]:i for i in range(1, len(string) + 1)}

# print(new_value)

numbers = [123,213,532,436,4576,322,332,435]
new_dict = {num ** 2: ("even" if (num ** 2) % 2 == 0 else "odd") for num in numbers}
print(new_dict)

dict_numbers = {"num1": 123, "num2": 214, "num3": 325}
dict_nums_new = {k:(f"{v} is even" if v % 2 == 0 else f"{v} is odd") for k,v in dict_numbers.items()}
print(dict_nums_new)```
```# Tuple

# in_scams = {1992: "Harshad Mehta", "2G": "A Raja", "Kingfisher": "Mallaya"}

# in_scams2 = {(1992, 2000): "Harshad Mehta", (2020, "Corona"): "Pravin"}

# print(in_scams)
# print(in_scams2)

# offices = {(1.213132, 1.22313): "Mumbai Office", (0.1231243, 2.123214): "Pune Office"}

# print(offices[(1.213132, 1.22313)])

# # Sets

# my_set = {12,3,4,5,5,5,5,5,5,6,6,7,8,9,34}
# #{34, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12}

# # for num in my_set:
# #     print(num)

# my_set.remove(5)
# # my_set.remove(102)

# print(my_set)

# # Common SET Math Methods

# # Union

# # Intersection

# # Set Comprehensions

# {num // 2 for num in range(10)}

# >>> "hello".upper()
# 'HELLO'
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> HELLO.lower()
# Traceback (most recent call last):
#   File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
# NameError: name 'HELLO' is not defined
# >>> "HELLO".lower()
# 'hello'
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> "hello".upper().lower()
# 'hello'
# >>>
# >>> "hello".capitalize()
# 'Hello'
# >>> "hello world".capitalize()
# 'Hello world'
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> "If you are good at something never do it for money".find("at")
# 16
# >>> "If you are good at something never do it for money".find("you")
# 3
# >>> "If you are good at something never do it for money".find("you2")
# -1
# >>> "If you are good at something never do it for money".find("you ")
# 3
# >>> "If you are good at something never do it for money".find("money")
# 45
# >>>
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> "sonny".center(25)
# '         sonny         '
# >>>
# >>> "sonny".center(0)
# 'sonny'
# >>> "sonny".center(10)
# ' sonny  '
# >>>

def horn():
print("HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH")
print("OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO")
print("NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN")
print("KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK")

horn```
```# def say_hello():
#   print("Hello!")
#   print("Hello!")
#   print("Hello!")
#   print("Hello!")
#   print("Hello!")
#   print("Hello!")

# def say_hello():
#   print("Hey there!")
#   return ("Hello")
# #   print("Whats up!")

# # result = say_hello()

# # print(result)

# def say_goodbye():
#     print("good bye")

# say_goodbye()

# def square_of_10():
#     return 10 ** 2

# # say_hello()

# # say_goodbye()

# square_of_10()

# say_hello()

# from random import random

# # print(int(random() * 1000000))

# def flip_coin():
#     if random() > 0.5:
#     else:
#         return "Tails"

# print(flip_coin())

#     if type(first) == int and type(second) == int:
#         return first + second
#     else:
#         return "Please enter only integers"

# def power_to(number, power):
#     return number ** power

# print(power_to(50, 3))

# def power_to(number, power, message):
#     return f"{message} - {number ** power}"

# # # print(power_to(50, 3))
# # print(power_to(50, 3, "Hello World"))
# print(power_to("Hello World", 50, 3))

# def filter_out(info):
#     if (info.lower().find("delhi") == -1):
#         return "Your job request has been accepted"
#     else:
#         return "Sorry there was no job, it was a mistake"

# user_input = input("What is your name and where are you from? ")

# print(filter_out(user_input))

# def sum_odd_numbers(numbers):
#     total = 0

#     for num in numbers:
#         if num % 2 != 0:
#             total += num

# print(sum_odd_numbers([1,2,3,4,5]))

# def power_to(number=5, power=2, message="The answer is"):
#     return f"{message} - {number ** power}"

# # print(power_to(10, 4, "Hello"))
# # print(power_to(10))
# print(power_to())

#     return a + b

# def subtract(a, b):
#     return a - b

# def divide(a, b):
#     return a / b

#     return fn(a,b)

# print(math(10,120,subtract))
# print(math(10,120))

# def full_name(first, last):
#     return "Your name is " + first + " " + last + "."

# def div(dividend, divisor):
#     return dividend / divisor

# # print(full_name("Kute", "Pravin"))
# print(div(2, 10))

# print(div(divisor=2, dividend=10))

# Scope

# result = "Hello World"

# def power_to(number=5, power=2, message="The answer is"):
#     dog = "Beagle"
#     if number == 10:
#         print(dog)
#         name = "Arnold"
#     print(name)
#     result = f"{message} - {number ** power}"
#     # print(result)
#     return result

# print(dog)

# # print(power_to())
# print(power_to(10))

# num = 100

# def power_to(number=5, power=2, message="The answer is"):
#     global num
#     num += 200
#     return f"{message} - {number ** power}"

# print(power_to(10))

# print(num)

# def outer():
#     count = 0
#     def inner():
#         nonlocal count
#         count += 1
#         return count
#     return inner()

# outer()

# nonlocal count
# count += 10
# print(count) # ERROR

def power_to(number=5, power=2, message="The answer is"):
return f"{message} - {number ** power}"

print(power_to(10))

print(power_to.__doc__)```
```# def add(*nums):
#     print(nums)
#     total = 0
#     for num in nums:
#         total += num

# def printme(message, *names):
#     for name in names:
#         print(f"{message} {name}")

# printme("Praveen", 100, "Ronak", True, "Ninad", "Ankit")

# def entry(*names):
#     if 'delhi' in names:
#         print("You are not allowed in here")
#     else:

# entry('Definite', True)

# def profile(**details):
#     # print(details)

#     for k,v in details.items():
#         print(f"{k} - {str(v).upper()}")
#     # print(f"{first_name} {last_name}")

# profile(last_name="Mukherjee", first_name="Sourabh", age=33, job="Software Developer")

# def show_info(a, b, *args, role="moderator", **kwargs):
#     return [a, b, args, role, kwargs]

# print(show_info(1, 2, 3, first_name="John", last_name="Wick"))

# # unpacking
#     total = 0
#     for num in nums:
#         total += num

# nums = [1,2,3,4]

# def say_name(first, last):
#     print(f"My name is {first} {last}.")

# name = {"first": "Don", "last_name": "Corleone"}

# # say_name("Lucifer", "Morningstar")
# say_name(**name)
# say_name(first="Don", last_name="Corleone")

# def say_name2(**names):
#     for k,v in names.items():
#         print(f"My {k} is {v}")

# say_name2(first="Don", last_name="Corleone", profession="Mafia")

# def square(a):
#     return a * a

# print(square(10))

squared = lambda a,b: a * a * b
# print(squared(20,10))
# print(type(squared))

# squared = 10
# print(squared)
# print(type(squared))

# def math(a,b,fn):
#     return fn(a,b)

#     return a + b

# print(math(200,12,lambda a,b: a * b))
# print(math(200,12,lambda a,b: a * b + (a ** 2)))

# nums = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]

# triples = map(lambda num: num ** 3, nums) # map object
# # quads = [num**4 for num in nums]
# print(triples)

# mul5 = [num * 5 for num in triples]
# print(mul5)

# print(dict(triples))
# print(list(triples))

# print(list(triples))

names = ["Gordon Gecko", "Definite", "Will Smith", "Willis", "SSR", "Harvey Spectre", "Amir Khan", "Vijay Chauhan", "Bruce Wayne"]

filtered_list = list(filter(lambda name: name[0].lower() == 'w', names))

print(filtered_list)```

```# Exercise 8

# def manipulate_list(list, command, location, value=None):
#     if command == "add" and location == "end":
#         if value:
#             list.append(value)
#             print(list)
#         else:
#     elif command == "add" and location == "front":
#         if value:
#             list.insert(0, value)
#             print(list)
#         else:
#     elif command == "remove" and location == "end":
#         if not value:
#             list.pop()
#             print(list)
#         elif value != list[-1]:
#             print(f"{value} is not the last value in the list")
#             print(list)
#         else:
#             list.pop()
#             print(list)
#     elif command == "remove" and location == "front":
#         if not value:
#             list.pop(0)
#             print(list)
#         elif value != list[0]:
#             print(f"{value} is not the first value in the list")
#             print(list)
#         else:
#             list.pop(0)
#             print(list)

# my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
# manipulate_list(my_list, "remove", "end", 50)
# manipulate_list(my_list, "remove", "front", 50)

# manipulate_list(my_list, "remove", "end")

# Ex. 9

# def is_palindrome(str):
#     return str.lower() == str.lower()[::-1]

# print(is_palindrome("anna"))

# Filter and map -> console output
# >>> nums = [1,2,3,4,5]
# >>>
# >>> mapped = map(lambda num: num + (num * 2), nums)
# >>>
# >>> mapped
# <map object at 0x00000154D7637FA0>
# >>> list(10)
# Traceback (most recent call last):
#   File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
# TypeError: 'int' object is not iterable
# >>> list("hello")
# ['h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o']
# >>> list(mapped)
# [3, 6, 9, 12, 15]
# >>> mapped = list(map(lambda num: num + (num * 2), nums))
# >>> mapped
# [3, 6, 9, 12, 15]
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> nums
# [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> filtered = list(filter(lambda num: num % 2 != 0, nums))
# >>> filtered
# [1, 3, 5]
# >>>
# >>> category = ["apple", "samsung", "lenovo", "hp", "dell", "asus"]
# >>>
# >>> filtered = filter(lambda cat: cat == "apple", category)
# >>>
# >>> list(filtered)
# ['apple']
# >>>
# >>> user = ["apple", "Karbonn"]
# >>>
# >>> filtered = filter(lambda cat: cat in user, category)
# >>>
# >>> list(filtered)
# ['apple']
# >>>

# names = ["John", "Jack", "James", "Desmond", "Charlie", "Jacob"]

# survived = list(
#     map(lambda name: f"Winner: {name}", list(filter(lambda name: len(name) < 5, names)))
# )

# print(survived)

# names = ["John", "Jack", "James", "Desmond", "Charlie", "Jacob"]
# # print(all(names))

# # print(all([name[0] == "J" for name in names]))
# # print([name[0] == "J" for name in names])

# print(any(name for name in names if len(name) > 3))

# nums = (123, 123, 21314, 5, 643, 2, 23321, 1)

# print(sorted(nums, reverse=True))

# >>> sorted("Hello")
# ['H', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o']
# >>> sorted("Hello2324")
# ['2', '2', '3', '4', 'H', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o']
# >>> sorted("Hello2324JAS")
# ['2', '2', '3', '4', 'A', 'H', 'J', 'S', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o']
# >>> sorted([12,234,4,5,6])
# [4, 5, 6, 12, 234]
# >>> tuple(sorted([12,234,4,5,6]))
# (4, 5, 6, 12, 234)
# >>> tuple(sorted([12,234,4,5,6,6,6]))
# (4, 5, 6, 6, 6, 12, 234)
# >>> set(sorted([12,234,4,5,6,6,6]))
# {4, 5, 6, 234, 12}
# >>> sorted(set(sorted([12,234,4,5,6,6,6])))
# [4, 5, 6, 12, 234]
# >>>

# # Sidenote - generators
# import sys

# # print(sys.getsizeof([1123213, 213, 213, 213, 21, 321, 3, 213, 213, 21, 3]))

# lst = [num * 10000 for num in range(0, 1000)]
# gen = (num * 10000 for num in range(0, 1000))

# print(sys.getsizeof(lst))
# print(sys.getsizeof(gen))

# >>> reversed("hello")
# <reversed object at 0x000002304493A550>
# >>>
# >>> list(reversed("hello"))
# ['o', 'l', 'l', 'e', 'h']
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> "".join(reversed("hello"))
# 'olleh'
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> abs(-33.3333)
# 33.3333
# >>> abs(-33.3)
# 33.3
# >>> abs(0)
# 0
# >>> abs(-0)
# 0
# >>>
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> sum([1,2,3])
# 6
# >>> sum([1,2,3,-4])
# 2
# >>> sum([1,2,3])
# 6
# >>> sum([1,2,3], 100)
# 106
# >>> sum([1,2,3], 5)
# 11
# >>> sum(range(1, 21), 5)
# 215
# >>> sum(range(1, 21), 1000)
# 1210
# >>>
# >>>
# >>>
# >>> round(99.99)
# 100
# >>> round(99.94)
# 100
# >>> round(99.49)

ages = [23, 4, 532, 23, 45, 21, 98]
names = [
"Hitler",
"Elon Musk",
"Warren Buffet",
"Kim Jon Un",
"Nikola Tesla",
]
birth_place = ["Austria", "South Africa", "New York", "North Korea", "USA"]

print(list(zip(names, ages, birth_place)))```
```# import pdb

# # Raise error

# def color_text(text, color):
#     colors = ("red", "green", "yellow", "white", "blue")
#     pdb.set_trace()
#     # print(type(color))

#     if color not in colors:
#         raise ValueError("Please enter a supported color")

#     if type(color) is not str:
#         raise TypeError("Please enter a supported color string")

#     return f"{text} IN {color.upper()}"

# print(color_text("The apple doesn't fall too far from the tree.", 10))

# try:
#     print(color_text("The apple doesn't fall too far from the tree.", 10))
# except (TypeError, ValueError) as err:
#     print("Some error")
#     print(err)

# try:
#     # attempt
#     num = int(input("Please enter a number: "))
# except TypeError:
#     # if unsuccessful
#     print("That's not a number!")
# else:
#     # if successful
#     print(num * 100)
# finally:
#     # runs either way (in the end). Whether success or error
#     print("Runs no matter what!")

# Write a function called inc_dec_list which accepts a list of numbers
# and a command. If the command is "increase" then then add 1 to all
# the numbers in the list and return that list. If the command is
# "decrease" then subtract 1 instead. Use the map function to achieve this.

# def inc_dec_list(num_list, command):
#     if command == "increase":
#         return list(map(lambda n: n + 1, num_list))
#     elif command == "decrease":
#         return list(map(lambda n: n - 1, num_list))
#     else:
#         return "Unknown Command"

# print(inc_dec_list([10, 20, 30, 40, 50], "increment"))

# num_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

# result = list(filter(lambda n: n < 7, num_list))

# print(num_list)
# print(result)

names = ["John", "Jack", "James", "Desmond", "Charlie", "Jacob"]
survived = list(
map(lambda name: f"Winner: {name}", list(filter(lambda name: len(name) < 5, names)))
)
print(survived)```
```# Module

# import random

# # print(random.random() * 100)
# # print(random.randint(10, 100))

# # def random():
# #     # code

# # import random
# import random as cool

# names = ["Donald Trump", "Kanye West", "Amir Khan", "Ninad Dubai", "Prathamesh Kurla"]

# # value = random.choice(["Donald Trump", "Kanye West", "Amir Khan"])
# value = cool.choice(["Donald Trump", "Kanye West", "Amir Khan"])

# print(names)
# # random.shuffle(names)
# cool.shuffle(names)
# print(names)

# # print(value)

# from random import randint as koi_number, choice as pasand, shuffle
from random import *

# print(randint(0, 10))
# print(koi_number(0, 50))
# print(pasand([1, 2, 3, 4, 5]))

print(randint(10, 100))
print(random())
print(choice(["first", "second"]))```
```# my_funcs.py
from random import choice

def curse():
curses = ["Bad", "Not Cool", "Idiot", "Wuss", "Nut job"]
return choice(curses)

def greet(name):
return f"Hello {name}"

if __name__ == "__main__":
print("Hello World")

# work2.py
from my_funcs import curse, greet
# print(curse())
print(f"{greet('John Doe')}, you are a {curse()}")```
```# ascii_art.py

from pyfiglet import figlet_format
from colorama import init, Fore, Back, Style
from termcolor import colored
from colorama.initialise import colorama_text

init()

def art_gen(text, color):
if color not in [
"black",
"red",
"green",
"yellow",
"blue",
"magenta",
"cyan",
"white",
]:
color = "white"

generated_art = figlet_format(text)
print(colored(generated_art, color))
print(Back.RED, "Hello World")

art_gen("Apple", "red")```
```class Email:
def __init__(self, to, cc, bcc, subject, message):
self.to = to
self.cc = cc
self._bcc = bcc  # private attribute
# self.__bcc = bcc  # Mangled attribute - _Email__bcc
self.subject = subject
self.message = message
self.sender = "Gmail"

def print_email(self):
print(
f"To: {self.to}\nCC: {self.cc}\nSubject: {self.subject}\nMessage: {self.message}"
)

# Getter method
def get_bcc(self):
return self._bcc

# Setter method
def set_bcc(self, email):
self._bcc = email

# class User:
#     def __init__(self, name, dob, aadhar_no):
#         self.name = name
#         self._dob = dob

my_email = Email(
"[email protected]",
None,
"[email protected]",
"I am trying to install Numpy!",
"It isn't happening.",
)

my_email2 = Email(
"[email protected]",
"[email protected]",
"[email protected]",
"You know nothing",
"Jon Snow. - Igrite",
)

print(my_email.to)
print(my_email.cc)
print(my_email.subject)
print(my_email.message)
print(my_email._Email__bcc)
print(my_email.sender)

my_email.to = "[email protected]"
my_email.sender = "Outlook.com"

print(my_email.to)
print(my_email.sender)

print(dir(my_email))

print(f"To: {my_email2.to}\nSubject: {my_email2.subject}")

my_email2.print_email()

print(my_email2.get_bcc())
my_email2.set_bcc("[email protected]")
print(my_email2.get_bcc())

# Create a new class. Dog.
# Attributes: name, breed, age, _owner
# getter and setter method for getting and setting _owner attribute```
```# def add(a, b):
#     return a + b

# Make uppercase decorator
def make_upper_case(fn):
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
return fn(*args, **kwargs).upper()

return wrapper

@make_upper_case
def say_hello(name):
return f"Hello, {name}."

@make_upper_case
def custom_hello(msg, name):
return f"{msg} {name}"

@make_upper_case
result = a + b + c
return f"The result of adding {a}, {b}, {c} is {result}"

# say_hello = make_upper_case(say_hello)

print(say_hello("hello world"))  # wrapper(arg) -> HELLO, HELLO WORLD!
print(say_hello(1000))  # wrapper(arg) -> HELLO, HELLO WORLD!

# message = custom_hello("Hey bruv", "John Doe")
# print(message)

# #     print(args)
# #     return args[0] + args[1]

# import time
from time import time

# def sum_gen(value):
#     print("Executing sum_gen")
#     start_time = time()
#     result = sum(num for num in range(value))
#     end_time = time()
#     print(f"Total time elapsed: {end_time - start_time}")
#     return result

# def sum_list(value):
#     print("Executing sum_list")
#     start_time = time()
#     result = sum([num for num in range(value)])
#     end_time = time()
#     print(f"Total time elapsed: {end_time - start_time}")
#     return result

# Speed test decorator
def speed_test(fn):
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
print(f"Executing {fn.__name__}")
start_time = time()
result = fn(*args, **kwargs)
end_time = time()
print(f"Total time elapsed: {end_time - start_time}")
return result

return wrapper

@speed_test
def sum_gen(value):
return sum(num for num in range(value))

@speed_test
def sum_list(value):
return sum([num for num in range(value)])

@speed_test
def greet(name):
return f"Hello {name}"

print(sum_gen(1000))
print(sum_list(1000))
print(greet("John Doe"))

# Limit arguments decorator
def limit_args(fn):
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
if len(args) <= 2 or len(args) < 5:
return fn(*args, **kwargs)
else:
return "Either too many or too less arguments"

return wrapper

@limit_args
return sum(args)

print(add(1, 23, 432, 22, 1, 1, 1, 223))

# Authenticate/authorize decorator
def authenticate(fn):
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
return fn(*args, **kwargs)
else:
return "NOT AUTHORIZED"

return wrapper

@authenticate
def access_page(user):
return "SECRET CONTENT"

print(access_page(user1))

#     return sum(args)

# my_nums = [1, 2, 34, 5, 6, 7, 8]

# # print(add(121, 3223, 1, 1, 11, 2))
```from functools import wraps
from typing import Type

def make_upper_case(fn):
"""THIS IS THE make_upper_case high-o-func"""

@wraps(fn)
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
"""THIS IS THE WRAPPER FUNCTION"""
return fn(*args, **kwargs).upper()

return wrapper

@make_upper_case
def say_hello(person):
"""Says hello to whoever you want."""
return f"Hello, {person}."

@make_upper_case
def say_whatever(person, message):
"""
Says whatever you want to whoever you want.
Accepts 2 arguments
@person -> name of the person
@message -> the message you want to convey
"""
return f"{message}, {person}."

say_whatever = make_upper_case(say_whatever)

print(say_hello("John"))
print(say_whatever("Hey bro, wassup", "John Doe"))

print(say_hello.__doc__)
print(say_whatever.__doc__)
print(make_upper_case.__doc__)

# normal func
return a + b

def math(num1, num2, fn):
return fn(num1, num2)

return x + y

print(math(10, 20, lambda x, y: x + y))

print(math(10, 20, lambda x, y: x + y))

def limit_args(fn):
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
if len(args) < 5 or len(args) > 10:
return "Either too many or too few arguments"
else:
return fn(*args, **kwargs)

return wrapper

@limit_args
return sum(args)

@limit_args
def print_names(*names):
for name in names:
print(name)

# print(add(10, 20, 12, 12, 12, 4))

print(print_names("Vishal", "Ankit", "Vaibhav", "Pravin"))

def limit_args(fn):
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
if len(args) < 5 or len(args) > 10:
return "Either too many or too few arguments"
else:
return fn(*args, **kwargs)

return wrapper

def limit_args(min, max):
def inner(fn):
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
if len(args) < min or len(args) > max:
return "Either too many or too few arguments"
else:
return fn(*args, **kwargs)

return wrapper

return inner

@limit_args(2, 5)
return sum(args)

# Original way of doing this

def enforce(*types):
def inner(fn):
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
new_args = []
for a, t in zip(args, types):
try:
new_args.append(t(a))
except (ValueError, TypeError):
return "Something went wrong"
return fn(*new_args)

return wrapper

return inner

@enforce(str, int)
def announce(msg, times):
print((msg + "\n") * times)

user_times = input("Please enter the number of times you want to print: ")

print(announce(user_msg, user_times))

# announce("Hello World!", 10)
```
```# file = open("hello.txt")
# # print(file)

# hello_file = open("hello.txt")
# # print(hello_file)

# print(hello_file_contents)

# file = open("hello.txt")

# with open("hello.txt", "r") as hello_file:

# with open("hello.txt", "w") as file:
#     file.write("This is written programmatically.\n" * 10)
#     file.write("This is written programmatically.\n" * 10)

# with open("hello2.txt", "w") as file:
#     file.write("Hello World!\n")

# with open("hello2.txt", "a") as file:
#     file.seek(0)
#     file.write("Hello Universe\n")

# with open("hello3.txt", "r+") as file:
#     file.seek(25)
#     file.write("COOL" * 5)

def copy_file(filename, new_filename):
with open(filename) as file:

with open(new_filename, "w") as file:
file.write(og)

copy_file("hello2.txt", "SOMETHING.txt")

def find_and_replace(filename, term, replacement):
with open(filename, "r+") as file:
new_text = text.replace(term, replacement)
file.seek(0)
file.write(new_text)

find_and_replace("hello2.txt", "Universe", "Multiverse")```
```from csv import reader

with open("house_candidate.csv") as file:
# print(row[4])
if row[4] == "True":
# print(row[1])

# --------

with open("house_candidate.csv") as file:
print(f"Party Name: {row['party']}")

# ----------------

with open("house_candidate.csv") as file:

with open("actors.csv", "w", newline="") as file:
csv_writer = writer(file)
csv_writer.writerow(row)

# -----------------

from csv import DictWriter

with open("actors.csv", "w", newline="") as file:
headers = ["Actor Name", "Gender", "Film"]
csv_writer.writerow({"Actor Name": "Paul Walker", "Gender": "Male", "Film": "FNF"})
csv_writer.writerow(
{"Actor Name": "Gal Gadot", "Gender": "Female", "Film": "Wonder Woman"}
)

# =------------

import pickle

class Human:
def __init__(self, name, age):
self.name = name
self.age = age

def __repr__(self):
return f"Name: {self.name}\nAge: {self.age}"

vishal = Human("Vishal", 28)
vaibhav = Human("Vaibhav", 22)
ankit = Human("Ankit", 21)

# print(vishal)
# print(vaibhav)
# print(ankit)

# with open("humans.pickle", "wb") as file:
#     pickle.dump((vishal, vaibhav, ankit), file)

with open("humans.pickle", "rb") as file:
print(saved_humans[1])

# ----------------------------
# ----------- PROJECT
# ----------------------------

from random import choice

class Account:
def __init__(
self,
first_name,
last_name,
phone,
dob,
email,
pan_no,
bank_name,
bank_initial,
):
# ...
self.balance = 1000
self.account_no = Account.gen_acc_no(bank_initial)

@classmethod
def gen_acc_no(cls, bank_initial):
alpha = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"
nums = "0123456789"
account_no = [bank_initial]
i = 0
while i < 8:
account_no.append(choice([choice(alpha), choice(nums)]))
i += 1
return account_no

# repr -> ac-no, customer, email

# create a property and setter for `name`

# functions:
def deposit(self, amount):
"""Print a string. Also return the new balance"""
prev_bal = self.balance
self.balance += amount
pass

def withdraw(self, amount):
pass

class Bank:
def __init__(self, name, branch, address, ifsc):
self.accounts = []
# create a new csv -> write only the headers
pass

# create __repr__

#

# get all account

#####
sbi = Bank()

john_doe = Account()

sbi.get_all_accounts```
```# import json
# import jsonpickle

# class User:
#     def __init__(self, first_name, last_name, age, verified):
#         self.first_name = first_name
#         self.last_name = last_name
#         self.age = age
#         self.verified = verified

#     def greet(self):
#         return "Hello World!"

# # john = User("John", "Doe", 25, True)

# # # print(john.__dict__)
# # # print(json.dumps(john.__dict__))

# # with open("users.json", "w") as file:
# #     # stored = jsonpickle.encode(john)
# #     file.write(jsonpickle.encode(john))

# with open("users.json") as file:
#     john = jsonpickle.decode(contents)
#     print(john)
#     print(john.greet())

# # print(john)

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

data = """
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<meta charset="UTF-8" />
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0" />
<title>My website</title>

<style>
.special {
color: green;
font-weight: bold;
}
#main {
color: red;
}
</style>
<body>
<h1 id="main">My website name</h1>
<h2 class="special special2">This is my subtitle</h2>
<p>
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Sed porta enim vel mauris
dignissim, ac tempus justo rutrum. Nulla in vestibulum mi, vitae aliquam dui. Nunc orci
metus, volutpat vel tortor ac, finibus iaculis nisi. Curabitur eleifend, orci at
vehicula mattis, tellus metus fringilla nulla
</p>
<div>
<h4 class="price product_label info">Product Price:</h4>
<span class="price">\$9.99</span>
<article class="first_para">
Ut dictum urna diam, sit amet convallis nisi finibus eu. Maecenas dictum erat id
porta ultrices. <strong>Nulla fringilla, sem ut accumsan interdum</strong>, purus
purus mollis diam, sed pretium sapien lectus a libero. Phasellus rutrum vulputate
eros eu imperdiet. Nam non malesuada purus.
</article>
<ul>
<li class="special" id="sample">Nam quis risus eleifend, pretium quam eu, finibus massa.</li>
<li class="special">
Donec vitae justo eu risus bibendum faucibus et vitae magna. Mauris congue diam
nec porttitor egestas.
</li>
<li>
Nam vel tincidunt lectus. Morbi molestie lacus id leo faucibus posuere. Sed eu
pretium justo. <em>Phasellus enim lectus</em>, rhoncus eu consequat ut,
facilisis eu velit.
</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div id="ending">
<a href="https://yahoo.com" class="special">Yahoo</a>
<img
src="https://rukminim1.flixcart.com/flap/700/700/image/4224c093ab3f6206.jpg"
alt="Image Description"
/>
<p>This is some cool text.</p>
</div>
</body>
</html>
"""

soup = BeautifulSoup(data, "html.parser")

# print(type(soup))
# print(soup.body.div.ul)

# Finding
# h2 = soup.find("h2")
# print(type(h2))

# print(soup.find("div"))
# print(soup.find("ul"))
# print(soup.find("li"))

# all_lis = soup.find_all("li")
# print(type(list(all_lis)))

# print(soup.find(id="ending"))
# print(soup.find(class_="special"))
# print(soup.find_all(class_="special"))

# CSS Selectors

# print(soup.select(".special"))
# print(soup.select("h1"))
# print(soup.select("#ending"))

# print(soup.select(".special")[0])

# print(soup.select("[src]"))
# print(soup.select("[href]"))

# for element in soup.select(".special"):
#     print(element.get_text())
#     print(element.name)
#     print(element.attrs)
#     print(element.attrs['href'])

# spl_element = soup.find(class_="special")

# print(spl_element.get_text())

# for element in soup.select("a"):
#     print(element.attrs['href'])

# div_data = soup.find("div")

# print(div_data)
# print(div_data.get_text())

doc_body = soup.find("body")

# print(doc_body.contents)
# print(doc_body.contents[1])
# print(doc_body.contents[1].parent)
# print(doc_body.contents[1].parent.parent)
# print(doc_body.contents[1].next_sibling.next_sibling)

# print(doc_body.contents[1].find_next_sibling())
# print(doc_body.contents[1].find_previous_sibling())

print(doc_body.contents[1].find_next_sibling(class_="special"))

print(doc_body.contents[1].find_parent)```
```# import json

# class Human:
#     def __init__(self, name, age):
#         self.name = name
#         self.age = age

# john = Human("John", 25)

# print(type(john))

# type_info = type(john)
# print(type_info)

# john_attributes = john.__dict__
# john_type = type(john)

# john_saves = dict(
#     type=str(john_type),
#     **john_attributes,
# )
# print(john_saves)

# # john_dict = {"type": type(john), "attributes": john.__dict__}
# # print(john_dict)

# print(json.dumps(john_saves))

import requests
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
from csv import writer

response = requests.get("https://arstechnica.com/")
soup = BeautifulSoup(response.text, "html.parser")

articles = soup.find_all(class_="article")

with open("articles.csv", "w", newline="") as file:
csv_writer = writer(file)
csv_writer.writerow(["Title", "Author", "Date", "URL"])

for article in articles:
title = article.find("h2").get_text()
author = article.find("span").get_text()
date = article.find("time").get_text()
url = article.find("a")["href"]
csv_writer.writerow([title, author, date, url])```
```import openpyxl

# # Create a new excel sheet

# wb = openpyxl.Workbook()
# sheet = wb.active

# sheet.title = "My Sheet"
# print(f"New Sheet title: {sheet.title}")

# c1 = sheet.cell(row=1, column=1)
# c1.value = "First Name"

# c2 = sheet.cell(row=1, column=2)
# c2.value = "Last Name"

# sheet["C1"].value = "Phone No."
# sheet["D1"].value = "Email"

# wb.save(
# )

# data = [
#     {
#         "first_name": "John",
#         "last_name": "Doe",
#         "phone": "887654332",
#         "email": "[email protected]",
#     },
#     {
#         "first_name": "Jane",
#         "last_name": "Doe",
#         "phone": "887698076",
#         "email": "[email protected]",
#     },
#     {
#         "first_name": "Jack",
#         "last_name": "Doe",
#         "phone": "665789876",
#         "email": "[email protected]",
#     },
# ]

sheet = wb.active

data = [
["John", "Doe", "887654332", "[email protected]"],
["Jane", "Doe", "887698076", "[email protected]"],
["Jack", "Doe", "665789876", "[email protected]"],
]

i = 2
while i < (len(data) + 2):
j = 1
# while j < (len(data) + 1):
while j < 5:
sheet.cell(row=i, column=j).value = data[i - 2][j - 1]
j += 1
i += 1

wb.save(path)
```

```# import openpyxl

# with open("house_candidate.csv") as file:
#     all_data = []
#         all_data.append(row)

# # Create our excel workbook obj
# wb = openpyxl.Workbook()

# # Create a new sheet
# sheet = wb.active
# sheet.title = "House Candidates"

# sheet2 = wb.create_sheet("sheet2")

# sheet["A1"] = "district"
# sheet["B1"] = "candidate"
# sheet["C1"] = "party"
# sheet["E1"] = "won"

# # Write data to sheet
# i = 2
# while i < (len(all_data) + 2):
#     j = 1
#     while j < (len(all_data[0]) + 1):
#         sheet.cell(row=i, column=j).value = all_data[i - 2][j - 1]
#         j += 1
#     i += 1

# wb.save(
# )

# ----------------------------------

# import openpyxl

# path = r"C:\Users\rahul.LAPTOP-IB8N85JR\Desktop\Training\Python\Python Evening 12\Scratchpads\house_candidates.xlsx"
# sh = wb.active
# # sh = wb["sheet2"]

# for i in range(1, sh.max_row + 1):
#     for j in range(1, sh.max_column + 1):
#         print(sh.cell(row=i, column=j).value)

# -----------------------------------

# import docx
# from docx.enum.text import WD_ALIGN_PARAGRAPH
# from docx.shared import Inches

# doc = docx.Document()

#     "Lorem ipsum dolor sit, amet consectetur adipisicing elit. Reprehenderit iure rem tenetur nostrum cupiditate molestias ipsum repudiandae perferendis neque, quibusdam beatae impedit voluptas. Ex velit, veritatis molestias temporibus labore ea pariatur consequatur libero, explicabo est voluptate necessitatibus inventore assumenda cum odit quia atque fugit nihil harum eos. Necessitatibus nihil mollitia nulla! Sit sequi deserunt voluptas repudiandae illo distinctio ipsum voluptatem suscipit repellat corporis, autem, illum velit iure consequuntur nisi quia laudantium culpa. Amet delectus aut quos iusto ipsam similique hic ratione quod totam! Quidem, reprehenderit! Nostrum, voluptas soluta! Nobis fugit sunt deserunt necessitatibus mollitia, expedita sint esse amet laboriosam sed."
# )

#     "\n\nLorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur adipisicing elit. Exercitationem, dicta? Voluptates perspiciatis ducimus doloribus est quis laboriosam asperiores dolorem, accusamus, maxime quam corrupti, non quidem voluptatibus repellat quae. Explicabo, culpa."
# )

# para2.bold = True

#     "Reprehenderit iure rem tenetur nostrum cupiditate molestias ipsum repudiandae perferendis neque, quibusdam beatae impedit voluptas. Ex velit, veritatis molestias temporibus labore ea pariatur consequatur libero, explicabo est voluptate necessitatibus inventore assumenda cum odit quia atque fugit nihil harum eos. Necessitatibus nihil mollitia nulla! Sit sequi deserunt voluptas repudiandae illo distinctio ipsum voluptatem suscipit repellat corporis, autem, illum velit iure consequuntur nisi quia laudantium culpa. Amet delectus aut quos iusto ipsam similique hic ratione quod totam! Quidem, reprehenderit! Nostrum, voluptas soluta! Nobis fugit sunt deserunt necessitatibus mollitia, expedita sint esse amet laboriosam sed."
# )

# para3.alignment = WD_ALIGN_PARAGRAPH.RIGHT

# # para2.alignment =

# doc.save(
# )

# ------------------------
# from pywinauto.application import Application
# import pywinauto
# from time import sleep

# # print(pywinauto.handleprops.is_toplevel_window(app.top_window()))
# # sleep(2)
# top_window = app.top_window()
# top_window.OK.click()

# # top_window.print_control_identifiers()

# # save_window.print_control_identifiers()
# save_window.ComboBox.type_keys("skynet2.txt")
# save_window.Save.click()

# ------------------
import pyautogui
from pywinauto.application import Application

app = Application(backend="uia").start("mspaint.exe")
print(pyautogui.size())

# pyautogui.moveTo(300, 400, duration=1)

distance = 200

while distance > 0:
pyautogui.dragRel(distance, 0, duration=0.2)
distance = distance - 5
pyautogui.dragRel(0, distance, duration=0.2)
pyautogui.dragRel(-distance, 0, duration=0.2)
distance = distance - 5
pyautogui.dragRel(0, -distance, duration=0.2)

# pyautogui.screenshot("screen.png")
```
```from pymongo import MongoClient

client = MongoClient("mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017")

mydatabase = client.pystudents
mycollection = mydatabase["students"]

# students = [
#     {"name": "John Doe", "age": 25},
#     {"name": "Jane Doe", "age": 29},
#     {"name": "Jack Doe", "age": 22},
#     {"name": "Jason Doe", "age": 34},
#     {"name": "Jaydeep Doe", "age": 43},
#     {"name": "Joy Doe", "age": 18},
#     {"name": "Jackson Doe", "age": 15},
# ]

# doc = {"name": "John Doe", "age": 25}
# mycollection.insert_one(doc)

# for student in students:
#     mycollection.insert_one(student)

# mycollection.insert_many(students)

# print(mycollection.find())

# for doc in mycollection.find():
#     print(doc)

# for doc in mycollection.find({"name": "John Doe"}):
#     print(doc)

# myquery = {"age": {"\$gt": 25}}

# for doc in mycollection.find(myquery):
#     print(doc)

# myquery = {"age": {"\$lt": 25}}
# newvalues = {"\$set": {"gender": "non-binary"}}

# mycollection.update_many(myquery, newvalues)
# mycollection.update_one({"name": "Jane Doe"}, {"\$set": {"gender": "Female"}})

# mycollection.delete_one({"name": "Jane Doe"})
# mycollection.delete_many({})

client.drop_database("pystudents")```
```# RAW MONGO COMMANDS

mongo -> enter mongo shell

db -> show your current selected db

show dbs -> list all dbs
use pythondb -> create a new db (only in memory)

db.students.insert({name: "John Doe", age: 25}) -> create new collection called students and inserts data

show collections -> show all collections (will show users)
db.students.find({}) -> will list all the items inside the db (the empty )

---Insert few more values, then below---
db.students.find()
db.students.find().pretty()

db.students.find({name: "Jane Doe"}) -> to find a value by it's fieldname
db.students.find({age: {\$gt: 26}}) -> specific search

db.students.updateMany({age: {\$gt: 18}}, {\$set: {status: "cool"}}) -> update many by a condition
db.students.update({name: "John Doe"}, {\$set: {name: "Jaak Doe"}}) -> update any one
db.students.updateOne({name: "Jaak Doe"}, {\$set: {name: "Jack Kest", alias: "brock"}}) -> update just one

db.students.deleteOne({name: "Jack Kest"}) -> delete a specific student
db.students.deleteMany({}) -> delete all students

db.dropDatabase() -> delete the database

exit -> quit mongodb```
```import sqlite3

# create connection
conn = sqlite3.connect("pystudents.db")

# initialize cursor oject
c = conn.cursor()

# # create table

# person = ["john", "doe", 25]

# query = "INSERT INTO students VALUES (?,?,?)"
# c.execute(query, person)

# c.execute(
#     "CREATE TABLE elections (district TEXT, candidate TEXT, party TEXT, total_votes INTEGER, won TEXT);"
# )

with open("house_candidate.csv") as file:
data = []
data.append(row)

query = "INSERT INTO elections VALUES (?,?,?,?,?);"
# c.executemany(query, data)

for row in data:
c.execute(query, row)
print(f"{row[1]} has been added to the database.")

conn.commit()
conn.close()```
```from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.keys import Keys
from time import sleep

browser = webdriver.Chrome("chromedriver.exe")

browser.maximize_window()
sleep(3)

# Search the element on the page and return it
search_box = browser.find_element_by_xpath(
)
search_box.send_keys("tool schism", Keys.ENTER)
sleep(3)

# sleep(1)
# song.click()

sleep(15)

sleep(1)

if next_song:
next_song.click()
else:

sleep(15)

sleep(10)
browser.close()

# ---------------------

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.keys import Keys
from time import sleep

browser = webdriver.Chrome("chromedriver.exe")

browser.maximize_window()
browser.get("https://www.irctc.co.in/nget/train-search")
sleep(3)

)
sleep(3)
```# import paramiko
# from time import sleep

# ip = "192.168.47.129"

# ssh = paramiko.SSHClient()

# print("Going to connect...")

# commands = ["ifconfig", "neofetch"]

# for cmd in commands:
#     stdin, stdout, stderr = ssh.exec_command(cmd)
#     for line in stdout:
#         print(line, end="")
#     sleep(1)

import tkinter as tkt
from tkinter import font

window = tkt.Tk()

fontstyle = font.Font(family="Arial", size="10")

frame1 = tkt.Frame(borderwidth=10, relief=tkt.RAISED)
frame2 = tkt.Frame(borderwidth=10, relief=tkt.RIDGE)

company_name = tkt.Label(
text="Manjunath Infotech",
foreground="white",
background="black",
font=font.Font(family="Arial", size="20"),
)

first_name = tkt.Label(text="First Name", font=fontstyle, master=frame1)
first_name_entry = tkt.Entry(master=frame1)

last_name = tkt.Label(text="Last Name", font=fontstyle, master=frame2)
last_name_entry = tkt.Entry(master=frame2)

submit_button = tkt.Button(
text="Submit Data",
foreground="yellow",
background="blue",
command=lambda: print(first_name_entry.get(), last_name_entry.get()),
)

company_name.pack(fill=tkt.X)
first_name.pack(fill=tkt.X)
first_name_entry.pack(fill=tkt.X)
last_name.pack(fill=tkt.X)
last_name_entry.pack(fill=tkt.X)

frame1.pack(side=tkt.LEFT, fill=tkt.Y)
frame2.pack(side=tkt.LEFT, fill=tkt.Y)
submit_button.pack(side=tkt.LEFT, fill=tkt.Y)

window.mainloop()```
```# Selenium

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.keys import Keys
from time import sleep

browser = webdriver.Chrome("chromedriver.exe")
browser.maximize_window()

browser.get("https://web.whatsapp.com/")
sleep(10)

search_input = browser.find_element_by_xpath('/html/body/div[1]/div/div/div[3]/div/div[1]/div/label/div/div[2]')
search_input.click()
search_input.send_keys("PYTHON EVE RS 12/10/20", Keys.ENTER)

i = 0
while i < 20:
msg_box = browser.find_element_by_xpath('/html/body/div[1]/div/div/div[4]/div/footer/div[1]/div[2]/div/div[2]')
msg_box.click()
msg_box.send_keys("SENT FROM MY SELENIUM SCRIPT")

send_btn = browser.find_element_by_xpath('/html/body/div[1]/div/div/div[4]/div/footer/div[1]/div[3]/button')
send_btn.click()
i += 1

sleep(10)
browser.close()

# Decorators
from time import time

def speed_test(fn):
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
start_time = time()
print(f"Executing {fn.__name__}")
result = fn(*args, **kwargs)
end_time = time()
print(f"Time Elasped: {end_time - start_time}")
return result
return wrapper

@speed_test
def sum_nums_gen():
return sum(x for x in range(10000000))

@speed_test
def sum_nums_list():
return sum([x for x in range(10000000)])

print(sum_nums_gen())
print(sum_nums_list())

# # Decorator 2

def ensure_first_arg(val):
def inner(fn):
def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
if args and args[0] != val:
print(f"First arg needs to be {val}")
else:
return fn(*args, **kwargs)
return wrapper
return inner

# With the decorator syntax
@ensure_first_arg("Desh Drohi")
def fav_movies(*movies):
print(movies)

# Without the decorator syntax style
# nulla = ensure_first_arg("Desh Drohi")
# nulla2 = nulla(fav_movies)
# # print(nulla2)
# nulla2("Lagaan", "Rang De Basanti")

fav_movies("Desh Drohi", "Lagaan", "Rang De Basanti")

# 1. Write a function which will accepts a list and returns
# the number of times a number is followed by a larger number
# across the entire list

# find_larger_numbers([1,5,2,7,10,43,1,0])

# 2. Write a function which accepts a (NxN) list of lists
# and sums the two main diagonals in the array.
# the one from the upper left to the lower right, and the one
# from the upper right to the lower left

# myList = [
#     [1,2,3,4],
#     [4,5,6,4],
#     [7,8,9,4],
#     [7,8,9,4]
# ]```
```# # find_larger_numbers([1,5,2,7])

# def find_larger_numbers(arr):
#     count = 0
#     i = 0
#     j = 1
#     while i < len(arr):
#         while j < len(arr):
#             if arr[j] > arr[i]:
#                 count += 1
#             j += 1
#         j = i + 1
#         i += 1
#     return count

# print(find_larger_numbers([1,5,2,7]))

# # ex 2
# myList = [
#     [1,2],
#     [4,5],
# ]

# def sum_diagonals(arr):
#     total = 0
#     i = 0
#     while i < len(arr):
#         total += arr[i][i]
#         total += arr[i][-1-i]
#         i += 1

# myList2 = [
#     [1,2,3],
#     [4,5,6],
#     [7,8,9],
# ]

# print(sum_diagonals(myList2))

# Beautiful Soup

import requests
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
from csv import writer

all_books = []
base_url = "http://books.toscrape.com/catalogue/"
url = "page-1.html"

with open("books.csv", "w", newline="") as file:
csv_writer = writer(file)

while url:
response = requests.get(f"{base_url}{url}")
print(f"Now scraping {base_url}{url}")
soup = BeautifulSoup(response.text, "html.parser")

# Search all books
books = soup.find_all(class_="product_pod")

with open("books.csv", "a", newline="") as file:
csv_writer = writer(file)

for book in books:
name = book.find("h3").find("a")['title'].encode("ascii", 'ignore').decode()
price = book.find(class_="price_color").get_text().split("£")[1]